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Method and process for rapid sampling and detection of lake water quality

发布日期:2020-01-07 13:12 Document serial number: 19641806 Release date: 2020-01-07 13:12
Method and process for rapid sampling and detection of lake water quality

The invention relates to the technical field of lake treatment, and more particularly, to a method for quickly sampling and detecting lake water quality.



Background technique:

A lake is a lake basin and its body of water. Lakes are important land resources. They have many functions such as regulating river runoff, developing irrigation, providing industrial and drinking water sources, breeding aquatic life, communicating with shipping, improving regional ecological environment, and developing minerals. They play an important role in the development of the national economy. At the same time, lakes and their watersheds are important places for humans to survive. The lakes themselves are sensitive to global changes. In the complex system of man and nature, lakes are the connection points for interactions between the various layers of the Earth's surface system. It is an important part of the terrestrial hydrosphere. It is closely related to the biosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere. It has the special functions of regulating regional climate, recording regional environmental changes, maintaining regional ecosystem balance, and diversified derivatives.

In China's lakes, sudden water pollution accidents occur from time to time. It has the following characteristics: Suddenly, due to the fierce coming, it is difficult to prevent, it is difficult to take effective precautions, and it is difficult to take effective emergency measures; diversity Sudden water pollution accidents often involve different fields and industries, and their pollution factors are diverse. All links have the possibility of pollution accidents. The severity of the hazards, accidents are often instantaneous, and can occur in a short time. A large amount of toxic and hazardous substances are discharged inside, and people usually have no way to take effective emergency measures in a timely manner, so it is easy to cause serious consequences; the danger of accidents, due to the many pollution factors, a large number of single emissions of pollutants, and sudden and harmful The strength is high, so its danger is high.

In the face of sudden lake water pollution accidents, to quickly adopt an effective emergency plan, we must first establish a rapid water quality detection method, that is, quickly, accurately, sensitively and conveniently determine the type, concentration, scope of pollution, Changes in possible hazards and accident factors. Conventional water quality detection methods are time-consuming and specific, and are not suitable for the monitoring of sudden water pollution.



Technical realization elements:

1. Technical problems to be solved

Aiming at the problems existing in the prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a method for rapid sampling and detection of lake water quality, which can realize a rapid monitoring method for researching chemical pollutants that cause water pollution starting from various types of pollutants, in order to establish rapid emergency The response and early warning system provide support. By collecting water sources at different time periods, accurate water quality information can be obtained, and then the water sources at different time periods are separated into samples with different temperatures, and the water sources in the area can be detected at different temperatures. Water quality, which can effectively ensure the accuracy of water quality detection.

2. Technical solution

To solve the above problems, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions.

A rapid sampling and testing method for lake water quality. The testing method includes the following steps:

s1. Use water body rapid sampling device to perform water body sampling in the water area to be detected;

s2. Process the water sample collected in s1;

s3, detecting the water body sample processed in s2;

s4. Compare the detection results obtained in s3 to obtain accurate water quality information and record the water quality information for later reference.

Further, in the s1, the water body sampling specifically includes the following steps:

s11. Select to collect the water area to be tested during the day, and collect water samples in three stages: morning, middle, and evening. The collection should be completed within 5-8min;

s12. Collect water samples in the same area again at night. The collection should be completed within 10-16min, and the water samples in different time periods are marked and distinguished.

Further, the water body rapid sampling device in s1 includes a cross bar and a first vertical bar, the top end of the first vertical bar is fixed on the cross bar, and the outer wall of the first vertical bar is provided along the length direction. A scale line, a mounting block is fixed on the bottom side wall of the first vertical rod, and the mounting block and the crossbar are provided with corresponding mounting through holes, and the upper and lower two mounting through holes are inserted inside A second vertical rod, wherein a plurality of fixing devices are provided on the second vertical rod, and a sampling device is fixed on each of the plurality of fixing devices; a grip rod is fixed on the upper outer wall of the second vertical rod; A plurality of springs are fixed on the grip bar, and the other ends of the springs are fixed on the lower side wall of the cross bar.

Further, the fixing device includes a fixing block, a positioning through hole is provided on the fixing block, the second vertical rod is provided through the positioning through hole, and a mounting groove is provided on the right side wall of the fixing block. A mounting protrusion is matched with an interior of the mounting groove, a fixing pin is engaged with the mounting groove and the mounting protrusion, and the sampling device is fixed on the mounting protrusion.

Further, the sampling device includes a sampling cylinder, a sealing cap is provided on the upper side of the sampling cylinder, a sealing ring is provided at a contact between the sealing cap and the sampling cylinder, and a connection is fixed on the upper side wall of the sealing cap A rod, the other end of the connecting rod is fixed on the outer wall of the second vertical rod, a filtering layer is fixed inside the sampling cylinder, a water outlet is provided at the bottom of the sampling cylinder, and a lower side of the water outlet is provided There is a sampling bottle, and the bottle mouth of the sampling bottle is screwed with the water outlet.

Further, in the step s1, after the sampling of the water body is completed, the water body sample is guaranteed to be in a sealed state, to avoid contact with the air, and to prevent the temperature of the water body sample from changing.

Further, in the s2, the water sample processing method includes the following steps:

s21: Divide the same water sample into three parts, and distribute them into different sample tubes, and place them in a sterile environment at room temperature and store them in a sealed container for future use;

s22. The temperature of the water sample in the first sample tube is reduced to 1-5 ° C, and the temperature of the water sample in the second sample tube is increased to 55-70 ° C. The water sample in the third sample tube is maintained at the original temperature. And placed in the same temperature environment.

Further, in the s3, the detection process specifically includes the following steps:

s31. Detect the presence or absence of chloride ions in the water body to be tested, add silver nitrate to the water body samples in the three sample tubes at the same time, and then mix and stir. If a white silver chloride precipitate is generated, the water body sample contains chloride ions;

s32. Detect the color of the water body to be tested, place the water body samples in the three sample tubes into different glass bottles, and use a spectrophotometer to determine the standard solution of the water body sample in the sample tube to make a standard curve. Use a spectrophotometer when testing the sample. Measure the color.

s33. Detect the concentration of organic matter in the water body to be tested, and use the purge and trap concentrator special syringe to extract more than 5ml of the water sample in the three sample tubes. Turn the syringe upside down and remove the air to make the sample volume 5.0ml. Pass the top of the syringe. Add 5 μl of internal standard and marker, and obtain the concentration of organic matter in the water sample by measuring the quantitative ion peak area of the unknown through the drawn standard curve;

s34. Detect the pH value of the water body to be tested, place different sample tubes in the reaction instrument, insert the acidity meter electrode into the water body sample, the electrode tip must be completely covered by the water body sample, and record the value displayed by the instrument, that is, the water body sample Ph value

s35. Use the electrolytic method to electrolyze the water body to be tested for water quality, place the first sample, the second sample, and the third sample in different electrolytic cells, and add an electrolyte to the electrolytic cell, and The molar mass ratio of the electrolyte to the water sample is 1:20, and the electrolysis is performed at the same temperature as the water sample, so that the information of the intermediate elements can be obtained, and the intermediate elements are placed in a detection instrument for detection to obtain the Water quality test data.

Further, in the s35, the electrolytic solution is an electrolytic solution prepared by mixing sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and deionized water, and the molar mass ratio of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and deionized water is 1 : 1: 4.5.

3. Beneficial effects

Compared with the prior art, the advantages of the present invention are:

(1) The detection method of the present invention can collect accurate water quality information by collecting water sources in different time periods, and then again divide the water sources in different periods into samples with different temperatures, and can detect the water sources in the area. Water quality at different temperatures can effectively ensure the accuracy of water quality detection.

(2) The detection method in the present invention can perform a variety of accurate detections of lake water sources, and realizes a rapid monitoring method for researching chemical pollutants that cause water pollution starting from various types of pollutants, in order to establish rapid emergency response and early warning The system provides support, is suitable for sudden water pollution, and has a wide range of technical effects.

(3) The water rapid sampling device in the present invention can realize sampling of water bodies of different depths, thereby achieving stratified sampling of the water body, which is convenient to use. After the sampling is completed, take out the rapid sampling device and remove the sampling bottle. The water body sample is obtained, and convenient and fast water body sampling is realized, which is convenient to use and improves the sampling efficiency, thereby effectively improving the work efficiency of water quality detection.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a flowchart of a method of the present invention;

2 is a schematic structural diagram of a water body rapid sampling device in the present invention;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged structural schematic diagram at a in FIG. 2; FIG.

FIG. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a sampling device in the present invention.

Explanation of labels in the figure:

1 horizontal bar, 2 first vertical bar, 3 scale lines, 4 mounting through holes, 5 mounting blocks, 6 second vertical bars, 7 fixing devices, 71 fixing blocks, 72 positioning through holes, 73 mounting grooves, 74 mounting protrusions Block, 75 fixing pin, 8 grip lever, 9 spring, 10 sampling device, 101 sampling cylinder, 102 sealing cap, 103 filter layer, 104 water outlet, 105 sampling bottle, 11 connecting rod.

detailed description

The following will combine the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention; a clear and complete description of the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention; obviously; the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the invention; not all of the embodiments, based on The embodiments of the present invention; all other embodiments obtained by a person of ordinary skill in the art without creative labor; all fall within the protection scope of the present invention.

In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the orientations or position relationships indicated by the terms "upper", "lower", "inner", "outer", "top / bottom end" are based on the orientations shown in the drawings Or the positional relationship is only for the convenience of describing the present invention and simplifying the description, and does not indicate or imply that the device or element referred to must have a specific orientation, structure and operation in a specific orientation, so it cannot be understood as a limitation to the present invention. In addition, the terms "first" and "second" are used for descriptive purposes only and should not be interpreted as indicating or implying relative importance.

In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the terms "installed", "installed with", "set / connected", "connected" and the like should be understood in a broad sense, such as "" "Connection", which can be a fixed connection, a detachable connection, or an integral connection; it can be a mechanical connection or an electrical connection; it can be directly connected, or it can be indirectly connected through an intermediate medium, or it can be inside two components Connected. For those of ordinary skill in the art, the specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood on a case-by-case basis.

Example 1:

Please refer to FIG. 1, a rapid sampling and testing method for lake water quality. The testing method includes the following steps:

s1. Use the water rapid sampling device to perform water sampling in the water area to be tested. After the water sampling is completed, ensure that the water sample is sealed, avoid contact with the air, and avoid changes in the temperature of the water sample;

Among them, the water sampling includes the following steps:

s11. Select to collect the water area to be tested during the day, and collect water samples in three stages: morning, middle, and evening. The collection should be completed within 5-8min;

s12. Collect water samples in the same area again at night. The collection should be completed within 10-16min, and the water samples in different time periods are marked and distinguished.

s2. Process the water sample collected in s1;

The water sample processing method includes the following steps:

s21: Divide the same water sample into three parts, and distribute them into different sample tubes, and place them in a sterile environment at room temperature and store them in a sealed container for future use;

s22. The temperature of the water sample in the first sample tube is reduced to 1-5 ° C, and the temperature of the water sample in the second sample tube is increased to 55-70 ° C. The water sample in the third sample tube is maintained at the original temperature. And placed in the same temperature environment.

s3, detecting the water body sample processed in s2;

The detection process includes the following steps:

s31. Detect the presence or absence of chloride ions in the water body to be tested, add silver nitrate to the water body samples in the three sample tubes at the same time, and then mix and stir. If a white silver chloride precipitate is generated, the water body sample contains chloride ions;

s32. Detect the color of the water body to be tested, place the water body samples in the three sample tubes into different glass bottles, and use a spectrophotometer to determine the standard solution of the water body sample in the sample tube to make a standard curve. Use a spectrophotometer when testing the sample. Measure the color.

s33. Detect the concentration of organic matter in the water body to be tested, and use the purge and trap concentrator special syringe to extract more than 5ml of the water sample in the three sample tubes. Turn the syringe upside down and remove the air to make the sample volume 5.0ml. Add 5 μl of internal standard and marker, and obtain the concentration of organic matter in the water sample by measuring the quantitative ion peak area of the unknown through the drawn standard curve;

s34. Detect the pH value of the water body to be tested, place different sample tubes in the reaction instrument, insert the acidity meter electrode into the water body sample, the electrode tip must be completely covered by the water body sample, and record the value displayed by the instrument, that is, the water body sample Ph value

s35. Use the electrolysis method to electrolyze the water to be tested, and place the first sample, the second sample, and the third sample in different electrolytic cells, and add an electrolytic solution to the electrolytic cell. The electrolytic solution is sodium hydroxide, An electrolyte prepared by mixing potassium hydroxide and deionized water, wherein the molar mass ratio of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and deionized water is 1: 1: 4.5, and the molar mass ratio of the electrolytic solution to the water sample is 1 : 20, and electrolysis at the same temperature as the water body sample, so that the information of the intermediate elements can be obtained, and the middle element is placed in the detection instrument for detection, and the water quality test data of the water body sample is obtained.

s4. Compare the detection results obtained in s3 to obtain accurate water quality information and record the water quality information for later reference.

The detection method of the present invention can collect accurate water quality information by collecting water sources in different time periods, and then again divide the water sources in different periods into samples with different temperatures, and can detect that the water sources in the area are at different temperatures. Water quality, which can effectively ensure the accuracy of water quality detection.

The detection method in the present invention can perform a variety of accurate detections of lake water sources, and realizes a rapid monitoring method for researching chemical pollutants that cause water pollution starting from various types of pollutants, and provides support for establishing a rapid emergency response and early warning system It is suitable for sudden water pollution and has a wide range of technical effects.

Please refer to FIGS. 2-4. The water rapid sampling device includes a cross bar 1 and a first vertical bar 2. The top end of the first vertical bar 2 is fixed on the cross bar 1. The outer wall of the first vertical bar 2 is provided along the length direction. Graduation line 3, a mounting block 5 is fixed on the bottom side wall of the first vertical rod 2. The mounting block 5 and the cross bar 1 are provided with corresponding mounting through holes 4, and the upper and lower two mounting through holes 4 are internally inserted. There is a second vertical rod 6, a plurality of fixing devices 7 are provided on the second vertical rod 6, the sampling device 10 is fixed on each of the plurality of fixing devices 7, and a grip rod 8 is fixed on the upper outer wall of the second vertical rod 6, A plurality of springs 9 are fixed on the grip bar 8, and the other end of the spring 9 is fixed on the lower side wall of the cross bar 1, wherein the fixing device 7 includes a fixing block 71, and the positioning block 71 is provided with a positioning through hole 72. The vertical rod 6 is provided through the positioning through hole 72. A mounting groove 73 is defined on the right side wall of the fixing block 72. A mounting protrusion 74 is fitted inside the mounting groove 73, and the mounting groove 73 and the mounting protrusion 74 are locked. A fixing pin 75 is connected, and the sampling device 7 is fixed on the mounting projection 74.

The sampling device 10 on the water rapid sampling device includes a sampling cylinder 101. A sealing cap 102 is provided on the upper side of the sampling cylinder 101. A sealing ring is provided at the contact point between the sealing cap 102 and the sampling cylinder 101. The upper side wall of the sealing cap 102 is fixed. There is a connecting rod 11, the other end of the connecting rod 11 is fixed on the outer wall of the second vertical rod 6, a filtering layer 103 is fixed inside the sampling cylinder 101, and a water outlet 104 is opened at the bottom of the sampling cylinder 101, and a lower side of the water outlet 104 is provided A sampling bottle 105 is provided, and the bottle mouth of the sampling bottle 105 is threadedly connected to the water outlet 104.

When sampling is performed using a rapid water sampling device, in the initial state, the sealing cover 102 and the sampling cylinder 101 are sealed and connected. Holding the grip lever 8 and pressing the grip lever 8 upward, the second vertical pole 6 is moved upward, thereby driving the seal cap. 102 moves upward. At this time, the sealing cover 102 is separated from the sampling cylinder 101. The fast sampling device is placed in the water to be tested. Water is sampled from the sampling cylinder 101 into the sampling bottle 105. The filter layer 103 provided inside the sampling cylinder 101 can Large particles of impurities in the water are filtered to ensure the sampling effect. Multiple sampling devices 10 are fixed up and down on the second vertical rod 6 to enable sampling of water bodies of different depths, thereby achieving layered sampling of the water body, which is convenient to use. After the sampling is finished, take out the quick sampling device and remove the sampling bottle 105 to obtain a water body sample, which realizes convenient and fast water body sampling, easy to use, and improves the sampling efficiency; the set scale is convenient for users to observe the depth of water body sampling , A fixing device 7 is provided to fix the sampling device 10, and the sampling device 10 can be easily removed and the interior cleaned, To use.

The above are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention; but the scope of protection of the present invention is not limited to this; any person skilled in the technical field is within the technical scope disclosed by the present invention; the technical solution according to the present invention and its Modified ideas are equivalently replaced or changed; all should be covered within the protection scope of the present invention.

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